While it is always possible to manually submit scripts like the one shown in the previous section to a cluster, using the flow interface will allows us to keep track of submitted operations for example to prevent the resubmission of active operations.
In addition, signac-flow uses environment profiles to select which base template to use for the cluster job script generation.
All base templates are in essence highly similar, but are adapted for a specific cluster environment.
This is necessary, because different cluster environments offer different resources and use slightly different ways to specify these resources.
You can check out the available options for the currently active environment with the
python project.py submit --help command.
The submit interface¶
In general, we submit operations through the primary interface of the
We assume that we use the same
project.py module as shown in the previous section.
Then we can submit operations from the command line with the following command:
~/my_project $ python project.py submit
This will submit all eligible job-operations to the cluster scheduler and block that specific job-operation from resubmission.
In some cases you can provide additional arguments to the scheduler, such as which partition to submit to, which will then be used by the template script. In addition you can always forward any arguments directly to the scheduler as positional arguments. For example, if we wanted to specify an account name with a PBS scheduler, we could use the following command:
~/my_project $ python project.py submit -- -l A:my_account_name
Everything after the two dashes
-- will not be interpreted by the submit interface, but directly forwarded to the scheduler as is.
Unless you have one of the supported schedulers installed, you will not be able to submit any operations in your local environment.
However, signac-flow comes with a simple scheduler for testing purposes.
You can execute it with
$ simple-scheduler run and then follow the instructions on screen.
Submitting specific Operations¶
The submission process consists of the following steps:
Gathering of all job-operations eligible for submission.
Generation of scripts to execute those job-operations.
Submission of those scripts to the scheduler.
The first step is largely determined by your project workflow.
You can see which operation might be submitted by looking at the output of
$ python project.py status --detailed.
You may further reduce the operations to be submitted by selecting specific jobs (e.g. with the
-d options), specific operations (
-o), or generally reduce the total number of operations to be submitted (
For example the following command would submit up to 5
hello operations, where the state point key a is less than 5.
~/my_project $ python project.py submit -o hello -n 5 -f a.\$lt 5
The submission scripts are generated using the same templating system as the
--test option to pre-view the generated submission scripts on screen instead of submitting them.
Parallelization and Bundling¶
By default all eligible job-operations will be submitted as separate cluster jobs. This is usually the best model for clusters that provide shared compute partitions. However, sometimes it is beneficial to execute multiple operations within one cluster job, especially if the compute cluster can only make reservation for full nodes.
You can place multiple job-operations within one cluster submission with the
For example, the following command will bundle up to 5 job-operations to be executed in parallel into a single cluster submission:
~/my_project $ python project.py submit --bundle=5 --parallel
Without any argument the
--bundle option will bundle all eligible job-operations into a single cluster job.
--bundle=1 is the default option might help you to better understand the bundling concept.
Executing operations on a cluster environment may involve the specification of resources that are required for said operation
For this, any
FlowProject operation can be amended with so called submission directives.
For example, to specify that a parallelized operation requires 4 processing units, we would provide the
from flow import FlowProject, directives from multiprocessing import Pool @FlowProject.operation @directives(np=4) def hello(job): with Pool(4) as pool: print("hello", job)
The directive np=4 means that the operation requires 4 processing units, the operation is not automatically parallelized.
All directives are essentially conventions, the
np directive in particular means that this particular operation requires 4 processors for execution.
Note that all directives may be specified as callables, e.g.
@directives(np = lambda job: job.doc.np).
The following directives are respected by all base templates shipped with signac-flow:
Specify which Python executable should be used to execute this operation. Defaults to the one used to generate the script (
The total number of processing units required for this operation. The default value for np is “nranks x omp_num_threads”, which both default to 1.
The number of MPI ranks required for this operation. The command will be prefixed with environment specific MPI command, e.g.:
mpiexec -n 4.
The number of OpenMP threads required for this operation.
The number of GPUs required for this operation.
Using these directives and their combinations allows us to realize the following essential execution modes:
This operation is a simple serial process, no directive needed.
This operation requires 4 processing units.
- MPI parallelized:¶
This operation requires 4 MPI ranks.
- MPI/OpenMP Hybrid:¶
This operation requires 4 MPI ranks with 2 OpenMP threads per rank.
The operation requires one GPU for execution.
The next section provides more details on how to select and define custom environments.